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 موضوع: (This is Muhammad(PBUH هذا هو محمد(ص)

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مُساهمةموضوع: موضوع: (This is Muhammad(PBUH هذا هو محمد(ص)   الخميس 23 ديسمبر 2010, 9:09 pm

موضوع: (This is Muhammad(PBUH هذا هو محمد(ص)

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How It All Began
Nearly four thousand years ago, in the Sumerian town of Ur
in the valley of the river Euphrates, lived a young man named
Abraham. The people of Ur had once worshiped Allah but as
time passed they forgot the true religion and started praying
to idols, statues made of wood or clay and sometimes even of
precious stones. Even as a small child Abraham could not
understand how his people, and especially his father, could
make these images with their own hands, call them gods, and
then worship them. He had always refused to join his people
when they paid respect to these statues. Instead he would
leave the town and sit alone, thinking about the heavens and
the world about him. He was sure his people were doing wrong
and so alone he searched for the right way. One clear night as
he sat staring at the sky he saw a beautiful shining star, so
beautiful that he cried out: ‘This must be Allah!' He looked at it
in awe for some time, until suddenly it began to fade and then
it disappeared. He turned away in disappointment saying: I
love not things that set. (Koran vi.77)

On another night Abraham was again looking at the sky and
he saw the rising moon, so big and bright that he felt he could
almost touch it. He thought to himself: This is my Lord. (Koran
vi.78) But it was not long before the moon set as well. Then he
said, Unless my Lord guide me, I surely shall become one of
the folk who are astray. (Koran vi.78) Abraham then saw the
beauty and splendor of the sunrise and decided that the sun
must be the biggest and most powerful thing in the universe.
But for the third time he was wrong, for the sun set at the end
of the day. It was then that he realized that Allah is the Most
Powerful, the Creator of the stars, the moon, the sun, the
earth and of all living things. Suddenly he felt himself totally at
peace, because he knew that he had found the Truth.

1 When he said unto his father and his folk: What do you
worship? They said: We worship idols, and are ever devoted to
them. He said: Do they hear you when you cry? Or do they
benefit or harm you? They said: Nay, but we found our fathers
acting in this manner.
He said: See now that which you worship, You and your
forefathers! Lo! they are (all) an enemy to me, except the
Lord of the Worlds. Who created me, and He guides me, And
Who feeds me and waters me. And when I sicken, then He
heals me. And Who causes me to die, then gives me lift
(again) And Who, I ardently hope, will forgive me my sin on
the Day of judgement. (Koran xxvi.70-82)
One day, while all the townspeople were out, Abraham
angrily smashed all the idols with his right hand except for one
which was very large. When the people returned they were
furious.
They remembered the things Abraham had said about the
idols. They had him brought forth before everyone and
demanded, 'Is it you who did this to our gods, 0 Abraham?'
Abraham replied, But this their chief did it. Ask them, if they
are able to speak.' The people exclaimed, 'You know they do
not speak.' 'Do you worship what you yourselves have carved
when Allah created you and what you make?' Abraham
continued, 'Do you worship instead of Allah that which cannot
profit you at all, nor harm you?' (Koran xxxvii.95-6)(Koran
xxi.66)
Finally, Abraham warned them, Serve Allah, and keep your
duty unto Him; that is better for you if you did but know. You
serve instead of Allah only idols, and you only invent a lie. Lo!
those whom you serve instead of Allah own no provision for
you. So seek your provision from Allah, and serve Him, and
give thanks unto Him, (for) unto Him you will be brought
back.(Koran xxix. 16-17)

2 The people of Ur decided to give Abraham the worst
punishment they could find: he was to be burnt to death. On
the chosen day all the people gathered in the centre of the city
and even the King of Ur was there. Abraham was then placed
inside a special building filled with wood. The wood was lit.
Soon the fire became so strong that the people were pushed
back by the flames. But Allah said: “O fire, be coolness and
peace for Abraham”. (Koran xxi.69)
The people waited until the fire had completely died down,
and it was then that they saw Abraham still sitting there as
though nothing had happened! At that moment they were
utterly confused. They were not, however, moved by the
miracle that had just happened before their very eyes.
Still Abraham tried to persuade his own dear father, who was
named Azar, not to worship powerless, un-seeing, un-hearing
statues. Abraham explained that special knowledge had come
to him and implored his father, 'So follow me and I will lead
you on the right path. 0 my father! Don't serve the Devil.' But
Azar would not listen. He threatened his son with stoning if he
continued to reject the gods of Ur. He ordered Abraham to
leave the city with these words: 'Depart from me a long while.'
Abraham said, 'Peace be upon you! I shall ask my Lord's
forgiveness for you. Surely He was ever gracious to me.’
(Koran xix.43-7)
Imagine how terrible it must have been for him to leave his
home, his family and all that he knew, and set out across the
wilderness into the unknown. But at the same time, how could
he have remained among people who did not believe in Allah
and who worshipped statues? Abraham always had a sense
that Allah cared for him and he felt Allah near him as he
traveled. At last, after a long hard journey, he arrived at a
place by the Mediterranean Sea, not far from Egypt. There he
married a noble woman by the name of Sarah and settled in
the land of Palestine. Many years passed but Abraham and his
wife were not blessed with any children. In the hope that there
would be a child, and in keeping with tradition, Sarah
suggested that Abraham should marry Hagar, her Egyptian
handmaid. Soon after this took place, Hagar had a little boy
3named Ishmael. Some time later Allah promised Abraham
another son, but this time the mother of the child would be his
first wife, Sarah. This second son would be called Isaac. Allah
also told Abraham that from his two sons-Ishmael and Isaac-
two nations and three religions would be founded and because
of this he must take Hagar and Ishmael away from Palestine to
a new land. These events were an important part of Allah's
plan, for the descendants of Ishmael would form a nation from
which would come a great Prophet, who would guide the
people in the way of Allah. This was to be Muhammad (pbuh),
the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). From the descendants of
Sarah's child, Isaac, would come Moses and Jesus.
So it was that Abraham, Hagar, and Ishmael left Palestine.
They traveled for many days until finally they reached the arid
valley of Bacca later to be called Mecca), which was on one of
the great caravan routes. There was no water in the valley and
although Hagar and Ishmael only had a small supply of water
left, Abraham left them there knowing Allah would take care of
them. Soon all the water was gone. The child began to grow
weak from thirst. There were two hills nearby, one called Safa
and the other Marwah. Hagar went up one hill and looked into
the distance to see if she could find any water, but found
none. So she went to the other hill and did the same. She did
this seven times. Then sadly she returned to her son, and to
her great surprise and joy she found a spring of water
bubbling out of the earth near him. This spring, near which the
mother and child settled, was later called Zamzam. The area
around it became a place of rest for the caravans travelling
across the desert and in time grew into the famous trading city
of Mecca.
From time to time Abraham traveled from Palestine to visit
his family and he saw Ishmael grow into a strong young man.
It was during one of these visits that Allah commanded them
to rebuild the Ka'bah-the very first place where people had
worshipped Allah. They were told exactly where and how to
build it. It was to be erected by the well of Zamzam and built
in the shape of a cube. In its eastern corner was to be placed a
black stone that had fallen to earth from heaven. An angel
4brought the stone to them from the nearby hill of Abu Qubays.
Abraham and Ishmael worked hard to rebuild the Ka'bah and
as they did so they prayed to Allah to send a Prophet from
among their descendants. And when Abraham and Ishmael
were raising the foundations of the House, (Abraham prayed):
'Our Lord! Receive this from us; Thou, only Thou, art the All-
hearing, the All-knowing; Our Lord! And make us submissive
unto Thee and of our seed a nation submissive unto Thee, and
show us our ways of worship, and turn toward us. Lo! Thou,
only Thou, art the Relenting, the Merciful. Our Lord! And raise
up in their midst a messenger from among them who shall
recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall instruct them in
the Scripture and in wisdom and shall make them grow. Lo!
Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty, Wise. (Koran ii.127-9) When
the Ka'bah was completed, Allah commanded Abraham to call
mankind to pilgrimage to His Holy House. Abraham wondered
how anyone could hear his call. Allah said, 'You call and I will
bring them.' This was how the pilgrimage to the Ka'bah in
Mecca was established and when Muslims make the pilgrimage
today they continue to answer the age-old call of Abraham.
5The Children Of Ishmael
Over the years Ishmael's children themselves had children.
His descendants increased and formed tribes which spread out
all over Arabia. One of these tribes was called Quraysh. Its
people never moved away from Mecca and always lived near
the Ka'bah. One of the duties of the leader of Quraysh was to
look after those who came on pilgrimage to the Ka'bah. The,
pilgrims would come from all over Arabia and it was a great
honor to provide them with food and water.

As time passed, however, the Arabs stopped worshipping
Allah directly and started bringing idols back with them from
the different countries they visited. These idols were placed at
the Ka'bah, which was no longer regarded as the Sanctuary of
Allah, as Abraham had intended it. It was, however, still
respected by the Arabs. Around this time the well of Zamzam
disappeared beneath the sand. Also at this time, Qusayy, one
of the leaders of Quraysh, became ruler over Mecca. He held
the keys of the temple and had the right to give water to the
pilgrims, to feed them, to take charge of meetings, and to
hand out war banners before battle. It was also in his house
that Quraysh settled their affairs. After Qusayy's death, his
son 'Abdu Manaf, who had become famous during his father's
lifetime, took over the leadership of Quraysh. After him came
his son Hashim. It is said that Hashim was the first to begin
the two great caravan journeys of Quraysh, one in the summer
to Syria and the north, and one in the winter to Yemen and the
south. As a result, Mecca grew rich and became a large and
important centre of trade.

One summer Hashim went north to buy goods to sell in
Yemen. On his way he stopped in Yathrib to trade in the
market and there he saw a beautiful woman. She was Salma',
the daughter of 'Amr ibn Zeid, who was from a much
respected family. Hashim proposed marriage to her and was
accepted because he was an honorable and distinguished man.
6 In time, Salma' gave birth to a beautiful son and as some
of his hair was white they called him Shaybah, which in Arabic
means grey-haired'.

Mother and son stayed in the cooler, healthier climate of
Yathrib, while Hashim returned to Mecca, but he would visit
them each time he took his caravan to the north. During one
of these journeys, however, Hashim became ill and died.
Shaybah, a handsome, intelligent boy, grew up in his uncle's
house in Yathrib. He was proud of being the son of Hashim ibn
'Abdi Manaf, the head of Quraysh, guardian of the Ka'bah and
protector of the pilgrims, even though he had not known his
father, who had died while Shaybah was very young.
At Hashim's death his brother al-Muttalib took over his
duties and responsibilities. He traveled to Yathrib to see his
nephew, Shaybah, and decided that as the boy would one day
inherit his father's place, the time had come for him to live in
Mecca. It was hard for Salma', Shaybah's mother, to let her
son go with his uncle but she finally realized that it was for
the best. Al-Muttalib returned to Mecca, entering the city at
noon on his camel with Shaybah behind him. When the people
of Mecca saw the boy they thought he was a slave and,
pointing at him, called out ‘Abd al-Muttalib', 'Abd' being the
Arabic for 'slave'.
Al-Muttalib told them that Shaybah was not a slave but his
nephew who had come to live with them. From that day on,
however, Shaybah was always affectionately called Abd al-
Muttalib. On the death of al-Muttalib, who died in Yemen
where he had gone to trade, 'Abd al-Muttalib took his place.
He became the most respected member of his family, loved
and admired by all. He was, however, unlike those Arabs who
had given up the teachings of Abraham.
7The Promise At Zamzam
The well of Zamzam, which disappeared when the Arabs
placed idols at the Ka'bah, remained buried under the sand.
Thus, for many years the people of Quraysh had to fetch their
water from far away. One day 'Abd al-Muttalib was very tired
from doing this and fell asleep next to the Ka’bah. He had a
dream in which he was told to dig up Zamzam. When he woke
up he was puzzled because he did not know what Zamzam
was, the well having disappeared many years before he was
born. The next day he had the same dream, but this time he
was told where to find the well.
'Abd al-Muttalib had one son at that time, and together
they began to dig. The work was so difficult that ‘Abd al-
Muttalib made an oath to Allah that if one day he were to have
ten sons to help him and stand by him, in return he would
sacrifice one of them in Allah's honor. After working for three
days they finally found the well of Zamzam. Pilgrims have
been drinking from it ever since. The years passed by and 'Abd
al-Muttalib did have ten sons. They grew into fine, strong men
and the time came for him to keep his promise to Allah. He
told his sons about the promise and they agreed that he had
to sacrifice one of them To see which one it would be, they
decided to draw lots, which was the custom of Quraysh when
deciding important matters. 'Abd al-Muttalib told each son to
get an arrow and write his own name upon it and then to bring
it to him. This they did, after which he took them to the Ka'bah
where there was a man whose special task it was to cast
arrows and pick one from among them. This man solemnly
proceeded to do this. On the arrow he chose was written the
name of 'Abd Allah, the youngest and favorite son of 'Abd al-
Muttalib. Even so, the father took his son near the Ka'bah and
prepared to sacrifice him.
Many of the Quraysh leaders were present and they became
very angry because 'Abd Allah was very young and much loved
by everyone. They tried to think of a way to save his life.
Someone suggested that the advice of a wise old woman who
8lived in Yathrib should be sought, and so 'Abd al-Muttalib took
his son and went to see if she could decide what to do. Some
of the Meccans went with them and when they got there the
woman asked, 'What is the price of a man's life?' They told
her, 'Ten camels', for at that time if one man killed another,
his family would have to give ten camels to the dead man's
family in order to keep the peace among them. So the woman
told them to go back to the Ka’bah and draw lots between 'Abd
Allah and ten camels. If the camels were chosen, they were to
be killed and the meat given to the poor. If 'Abd Allah was
picked then ten more camels were to be added and the lots
drawn again and again until they finally fell on the camels.
‘Abd al-Muttalib returned to the Ka’bah with his son and the
people of Mecca. There they started to draw lots between ‘Abd Allah
and the camels, starting with ten camels. ‘Abd al-Muttalib prayed to
Allah to spare his son and everyone waited in silence for the result.
The choice fell on ‘Abd Allah, so his father added ten more camels.
Again the choice fell on ‘Abd Allah, so they did the same thing again
and again, adding ten camels each time. Finally they reached one
hundred camels, and only then did the lot fall on the camels. ‘Abd
Allah was saved and everyone was very happy. 'Abd al-Muttalib
however, wanted to make sure that this was the true result so he
repeated the draw three times and each time it fell on the camels.
He then gave thanks to Allah that He had spared ‘Abd Allah's life.
The camels were sacrificed and there was enough food for the
entire city, even the animals and birds. 'Abd Allah grew up to be a
handsome young man and his father eventually chose Aminah, the
daughter of Wahb, as a wife for him. It was a good match for she
was the finest of Quraysh women and 'Abd Allah the best of the
men. He spent several months with his wife but then he had to
leave her and travel with one of the caravans to trade with Syria.
On his way back to Mecca from Syria 'Abd Allah became ill and had
to stop off in Yathrib to recover. The caravan, however, continued
on its way and arrived back in Mecca without him. On hearing of
'Abd Allah's illness, ‘Abd al-Muttalib sent another son, al-Hareth, to
bring 'Abd Allah back to Mecca, but he was too late.
When he arrived in Yathrib ‘Abd Allah was dead. Aminah was
heart-broken to lose her husband and the father of the child she
would soon give birth to. Only Allah knew that this orphan child
would one day be a great Prophet.
9The Elephant Refuses To Move
Abrahah, who came from Abyssinia-a country in Africa-
conquered Yemen and was made vice-regent there. Later, he
noticed that at a certain time of the year large numbers of
people would travel from all over Yemen and the rest of Arabia
to Mecca. He asked the reason for this and was told that they
were going on pilgrimage to the Ka'bah. Abrahah hated the
idea of Mecca being more important than his own country, so
he decided to build a church of colored marble, with doors of
gold and ornaments of silver, and ordered the people to visit it
instead of the Ka'bah. But no one obeyed him.
Abrahah became angry and decided to destroy the Ka1bah.
He prepared a large army led by an elephant and set off
towards Mecca. When the Meccans heard that he was coming
they became very frightened. Abrahah's army was huge and
they could not fight it. But how could they let him destroy the
Holy Ka'bah? They went to ask the advice of their leader, 'Abd
al-Muttalib. When Abrahah arrived outside Mecca, 'Abd al-
Muttalib went to meet him. Abrahah said, 'What do you want?'
Abrahah had taken Abd al-Muttalib's camels, which he had
found grazing as he entered Mecca, so ‘Abd al-Muttalib replied,
'I want my camels back.' Abrahah was very surprised and said,
'I have come to destroy your Holy Ka’bah, the holy place of
your fathers, and you ask me about some camels?' 'Abd al-
Muttalib replied calmly, ‘The camels belong to me; the Ka’bah
belongs to Allah and He will protect it.' Then he left Abrahah
and went back to Quraysh and ordered them to leave Mecca
and wait for their enemies in the mountains.
In the morning Abrahah prepared to enter the town. He put
armor on his elephant and drew up his troops for battle. He
intended to destroy the Ka'bah and then return to Yemen. At
that moment, however, the elephant knelt down and refused
to get up, no matter how much the soldiers tried to get it to
move by beating it.

10
But when they turned its face in the direction of Yemen it
immediately got up and started off. In fact, it did the same in
any other direction, but as soon as they pointed it towards
Mecca it knelt down again. Suddenly, flocks of birds appeared
from over the sea. Each bird carried three stones as small as
peas and they dropped them on Abrahah1s army. The soldiers
suddenly fell ill. Even Abrahah was hit by the stones and fled
in fear with the rest of his army back to Yemen, where he later
died. On seeing their enemy flee the Arabs came down from
the mountains to the Ka’bah and gave thanks to Allah.
After this, Quraysh gained great respect and became known as
'the people of Allah', and the year in which these events took place,
570A.D, was named the 'Year of the Elephant'. In that year Allah
had saved the Ka'bah and he would soon bring forth a Prophet from
among Quraysh. In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful:
“Hast thou not seen how thy Lord dealt with the owners of the
Elephant? Did He not bring their stratagem to naught, And send
against them swarms of flying creatures, Which pelted them with
stones of baked clay, And made them like green crops devoured (by
cattle)? (Koran cv.1-5)
The Prophet Is Born
One day, while travelling north, one of the Arab tribes from
Mecca met a hermit in the desert. Some of the men stopped to
speak with him. Hermits were known to be wise and the Arabs
often asked their advice. The hermit asked where they had
come from. When they replied that they were from Mecca, he
told them that Allah would soon send a prophet, who would
come from their people. They asked the name of this prophet
and the hermit answered that his name would be Muhammad
and that he would guide them to a new way of life.
11 Meanwhile in Mecca, Aminah, although saddened by the loss
of her husband, felt especially well and strong as she awaited
the birth of her baby. During this time she dreamt of many
things. On one occasion it was as if a great light were shining
out of her, and on another she heard a voice telling her that
she would have a boy and that his name would be Muhammad.
She never forgot that voice but she told no one about it.
On Monday, the twelfth day of Rabi al-Awwal in the Year of
the Elephant, Aminah gave birth to a son. Allah sends man
many signs when one of His chosen Prophets is born and on
that twelfth day of Rabi al-Awwal in the year 570 A.D, many
such signs were seen. Some were seen by Jewish scholars who
had read in their scriptures of a coming Prophet. One of these
learned men in Yathrib, for instance, saw a brilliant new star
he had never seen before as he studied the heavens that
night. He called the people around him and, pointing the star
out to them, told them a Prophet must have been born. That
same night another Jew was passing by the meeting place of
the leaders of Quraysh in Mecca. He asked them if a baby boy
had just been born and told them that if it were true, this
would be the Prophet of the Arab nation.
Aminah sent news of the birth to her father-in-law, 'Abd al-
Muttalib, who was sitting near the Ka'bah at the time. He was
very happy and began at once to think of a name for the boy.
An ordinary name would not do. Six days came and went and
still he had not decided. But on the seventh day, as he lay
asleep near the Ka’bah, 'Abd al-Muttalib dreamt that he should
give the baby the unusual name of Muhammad, just as
Aminah herself had dreamt. And the child was called
Muhammad (pbuh), which means 'the Praised One'. When 'Abd
al-Muttalib told the leaders of Quraysh what he had named his
grandson, many of them asked, 'Why did you not choose the
sort of name that is used by our people?' At once he replied, 'I
want him to be praised by Allah in the heavens and praised by
men on earth.
12A Time With Halimah
Like many other women in Mecca, Aminah decided to send
her son away from the city for his early years to the desert
where it was more healthy. Women from the desert used to
come to Mecca to collect the new babies and they would then
keep them until they developed into strong children, for which
they were well paid by the parents.

Among the women who traveled to Mecca to fetch a new
baby at the time Aminah's son was born, was a Bedouin
woman called Halimah. With her was her husband and baby
son. They had always been very poor but this year things were
harder than ever because there had been famine. The donkey
that earned Halimah on the journey was so weak from hunger
that he often stumbled. Halimah's own baby son cried all the
time because his mother could not feed him properly. Even
their she-camel did not give them one drop of milk. Halimah
did not know what to do. She thought to herself, 'How can I
possibly feed another baby when I haven't got enough milk
even for my own son?'
At last they reached Mecca. All the other women of the
tribe to which Halimah belonged, the Bani Sa'd, found a child
to take back with them, but not Halimah. The only baby left
was Muhammad (pbuh). Usually the father paid the wet-nurse
but Mohammed’s father was dead. So no one wanted to take
him, even though he was from one of the noblest families of
Quraysh. Halimah did not want to take him either, but she did
not want to be the only woman to go back to her tribe without
a baby to bring up. She asked her husband whether she
should take Muhammad (pbuh) or not. He advised her to do
so, adding, 'Perhaps Allah will bless us because of him.' They
started on the return journey and as soon as Halimah began to
feed Muhammad (pbuh) her milk suddenly increased and she
had enough for him as well as her baby son. When they were
back home, everything began to change.
13The land became green, and the date trees, one of their
main sources of food, gave lots of fruit. Even the sheep and
their old she-camel began to give plenty of milk.
Halimah and her husband knew that this good fortune had
come because they had the new baby, Muhammad (pbuh),
whom they had come to love as if he were their own son.
When Muhammad (pbuh) was two years old, Halimah took
him back to his mother. She pleaded with Aminah, however, to
let her keep him for a little longer, and to her great joy the
mother agreed. During his time with Halimah's family in the
desert, Muhammad (pbuh) played with her children and
together they would take the sheep out to graze. At other
times, however, Halimah would often find him sitting alone. It
is said that on one occasion, two angels came to Muhammad
(pbuh) and washed his heart with snow. In this way Allah
made his heart pure for He intended Muhammad (pbuh) to be
greater than any man ever born and to become the Seal of the
Prophets.
In the Name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful
“Did We not expand thy breast for thee And eased thee of
thy burden Which weighed down thy back; And exalted thy
fame? So truly with hardship comes ease, Truly with hardship
comes ease. So when thou art relieved, still toil And strive to
please thy Lord. (Koran xciv.1-
When Halimah finally took Muhammad (pbuh) back to
Aminah, he was a healthy, strong boy. Later he would look
back with joy on the time he had spent with Halimah, and he
always thought of himself as one of the Bani Sa'd.


14The Orphan's Childhood
Muhammad (pbuh) returned to live with his mother in Mecca
when he was about three years old. Three years later Aminah
decided to take her son to visit his uncles in Yathrib. She told
her maid, Barakah, to prepare everything they would need for
the long journey, and then they joined one of the caravans
going there. They stayed in Yathrib a month and Muhammad
(pbuh) enjoyed the visit with his cousins. The climate there
was very pleasant and he learned to swim and to fly a kite. On
their way back to Mecca, however, Aminah became ill and
died. She was buried in the village at al-Abwa not far from
Yathrib. Muhammad (pbuh) returned sadly to Mecca with his
mother's maid He was now six years old and had lost both his
father and mother. He was then adopted by his grandfather,
‘Abd al-Muttalib, who loved him dearly and kept him by his
side at all times. It was the custom of 'Abd al-Muttalib to sit on
a blanket near the Ka’bah. There he was always surrounded by
people who had come to speak to him. No one was allowed to
sit on the blanket with him, however, except his grandson
Muhammad (pbuh), which shows how close they were to each
other. Many times 'Abd al-Muttalib was heard to say: 'This boy
will be very important one day.'
Two years later 'Abd al-Muttalib became ill and Muhammad
(pbuh) stayed by him constantly. 'Abd al-Muttalib told his son,
Abu Talib, to adopt Muhammad (pbuh) after his death, which
he did. Abu Talib had many children of his own, but
Muhammad (pbuh) immediately became part of his family and
the favorite child. The time came for Quraysh to prepare a
caravan to go to Syria. Abu Talib was going with them and he
took Muhammad (pbuh) along. It was Mohammed’s first
journey to the north. After days of travel, the caravan arrived
at a place near Syria where the Romans used to come to trade
with the Arabs. Near this marketplace lived a monk called
Bahira’. His cell had been used by generations of monks before
him and contained ancient manuscripts.
15Bahira' saw the caravan in the distance and was amazed to
see that over it was a large white cloud. It was the only cloud
in a clear blue sky and it appeared to be shading one of the
travelers. The monk was even more surprised to see that the
cloud seemed to follow the caravan but disappeared when the
person it was shading sat down under a tree. Bahira’ knew
from the scriptures that a prophet was expected to come after
Jesus and it had been his wish to see this prophet before he
died. Realizing that what he had just seen was a miracle, he
began to think that his wish might, after all, come true.
The monk sent an invitation to the Meccans to come and
eat with him. The Arabs were surprised because they often
passed by and Bahira’ had never invited them before. When
the group was all together for the meal, the monk said, 'Is this
everyone?’ 'No', someone said, 'a boy was left watching the
camels.' Bahira’ insisted that the boy should join them. The
boy was Muhammad (pbuh). When he arrived Bahira’ said
nothing, but watched him all through the meal. He noticed
many things about his appearance which fitted the description
in the old manuscripts. Later on he took him aside and asked
Muhammad (pbuh) many questions. He soon found out how he
felt about the idols in the Ka'bah. When Bahira tried to make
him swear by them, as the Arabs used to do, Muhammad
(pbuh) said, 'There is nothing in this world that I hate more'.
They talked together about Allah and about Mohammed’s life
and family. What was said made Bahira certain that this was
indeed the Prophet who would follow Jesus.
Then the monk went to Abu Talib and asked him how he
was related to Muhammad (pbuh). Abu Talib told him that
Muhammad (pbuh) was his son. Bahira replied that this could
not be so because the boy was destined to grow up an orphan,
and he ordered Abu Talib to watch over Muhammad (pbuh)
with great care. There are many stories told about
Mohammed’s youth. Some tell of how he used to take the
family's sheep to graze and was always kind to them. While
they grazed he would sit thinking about the mysteries of
nature. Unlike those around him1 he never worshipped the
idols and never swore by them.
16He also wondered why people were always struggling for
power and money, and this saddened him and made him feel
lonely, but he kept his feelings to himself. He was a quiet,
thoughtful boy, and rarely played with other boys of his age.
On one occasion, however, Muhammad (pbuh) went with some
of the boys to a wedding in Mecca. When he reached the
house he heard the sounds of music and dancing but just as
he was about to enter he suddenly felt tired and, sitting down,
fell asleep. He didn't wake up until late the next morning and
thus missed the celebrations. In this way Allah prevented him
from doing anything foolish for He was keeping Muhammad
(pbuh) for something much more important
17The Prophet's Marriage
By the time Muhammad (pbuh) was twenty-five he was
famous for his honesty. He was respected by everyone, even
the elders of Mecca. The purity of his nature increased with the
years. It seemed he had an inner knowledge that other people
did not have. He believed in one God-Creator of the world-and
he worshipped Him with all his heart and with all his soul.
Muhammad (pbuh) was the finest of his people, the most kind,
truthful and reliable person in Mecca. He was known among
Quraysh as 'the trustworthy' (al-Amin) because of the good
qualities Allah had given him. He spent many quiet hours in a
cave in Mount Hira, not far from Mecca, thinking about Allah.
Among Quraysh was a respected and wealthy woman named
Khadijah. She was involved in trade and on hearing of
Mohammed’s reputation, sent for him and asked him to take
her goods and trade with them in Syria. Muhammad (pbuh)
agreed and left for Syria with one of Khadijah's caravans. With
him went her slave, Maysarah, and they spent a great deal of
time talking together. Maysarah soon came to admire
Muhammad (pbuh). He thought he was quite different from all
the other men of Quraysh.
Two unusual events took place during this journey which
puzzled Maysarah very much. The first happened when they
stopped to rest near the lonely home of a monk. Muhammad
(pbuh) sat under a tree while Maysarah was busy with some
work. The monk came up to Maysarah and asked, 'Who is the
man resting under the tree?' 'One of Quraysh, the people who
guard the Ka’bah', said Maysarah. 'No one but a Prophet is
sitting beneath this tree', replied the monk. The second event
occurred on the journey back to Mecca. It happened at noon,
when the sun is at its hottest. Maysarah was riding behind
Muhammad (pbuh) and as the sun grew hotter he saw two
angels appear above Muhammad (pbuh) and shield him from
the sun's harmful rays. The trading was very successful and
Muhammad (pbuh) made more profit for Khadijah than she
had ever received before.
18When they arrived back in Mecca Maysarah told Khadijah
everything about the trip and what he had noticed about
Mohammed’s character and behavior.
Khadijah was a widow in her forties and as well as being
rich and highly respected she was also very beautiful.
Many men wanted to marry her but none of them suited
her. When she met Muhammad (pbuh), however, she thought
he was very special. She sent a friend to ask Muhammad
(pbuh) why he was not married. Muhammad (pbuh) said that
it was because he had no money, to which the friend replied:
'Supposing a rich, beautiful and noble lady agreed to marry
you?' Muhammad (pbuh) wanted to know who that could be.
The friend told him it was Khadijah. Muhammad (pbuh) was
very happy, because he greatly respected Khadijah. He went
with his uncles, Abu Talib and Hamzah, to Khadijah's uncle,
and asked his permission to marry her. The uncle gave his
permission and soon after, Muhammad (pbuh) and Khadijah
were married.
Their marriage was a joyful one and Muhammad (pbuh)
and Khadijah were well suited. Their life together, however,
was not without some sadness. They were blessed with six
children, two sons and four daughters. Sadly their first born, a
son called Qasim, died shortly before his second birthday, and
their last child, also a son, only lived for a short time. Happily,
their four daughters-Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and
Fatimah-all survived.
For a few years Muhammad (pbuh) lived a calm and quiet
life as a merchant in Mecca. His wisdom benefited many
people. One such time was when Quraysh decided to rebuild
the Ka’bah. It was a difficult decision for them because they
had to knock it down before rebuilding it and the people were
afraid that Allah might be angry with them for knocking down
His sanctuary. At last one of the wise old men of Quraysh
decided to begin, then everybody followed him. They worked
until they reached down to the first foundation that Abraham
had built. As soon as they began to remove the stones of this
foundation, however, the whole of Mecca began to shake.
19They were so afraid that they decided to leave these stones
where they were and build on top of them. Each tribe brought
stones and they built the Ka'bah up until they reached the
place where the black stone was to be set. They then began to
argue about who should have the honor of carrying the black
stone and lifting it to its place in one of the corners of the
Ka'bah.
They almost came to blows but fortunately one of the men
offered a solution. He suggested that they should be guided by
the first person to enter the place of worship. They all agreed
and as Muhammad (pbuh) was the first to enter everyone was
pleased, because they all trusted him. They told him the cause
of the argument and he asked them to bring a large cloak.
They did as he asked, and after spreading the cloak on the
ground he placed the black stone in the centre of it. Then he
asked a man from each tribe to hold one edge of the cloak and
together to raise it to the height where the stone should be
see. When this was done, he took the stone off the cloak and
put it into place himself. This story shows how all Quraysh
respected and trusted Muhammad (pbuh) and how, by his
wisdom and good sense, he was able to keep the peace.
20The Coming of The Archangel Gabriel
Muhammad (pbuh) believed that there was only one Allah,
Creator of the sun, the moon, the earth, the sky, and of all
living things, and that all people should worship only Him.
Muhammad (pbuh) would often leave the crowded city and go
to the cave in Mount Hira'. He liked to be alone there, away
from all thoughts of the world and daily life, eating and
drinking little. In his fortieth year, Muhammad (pbuh) left
Mecca to spend Ramadan, the traditional month of retreat, in
the cave. In the second half of Ramadan, Allah began to reveal
His message for mankind through Muhammad (pbuh). This
first Revelation occurred as follows. The Archangel Gabriel
came to Muhammad (pbuh) in the cave and commanded him
to 'Read'. Muhammad (pbuh) replied 'I cannot read.' At this
the Archangel took Muhammad (pbuh) in his arms and pressed
him to him until it was almost too much to bear. He then
released him and said again 'Read.' 'I cannot', replied
Muhammad (pbuh), at which the Archangel embraced him
again. For the third time the Archangel commanded
Muhammad (pbuh) to read, but still he said he could not and
was again embraced. On releasing him this time, however, the
Archangel Gabriel said:
“Read: In the Name of thy Lord who createth, Createth
man from a clot. Read: And thy Lord is the Most Generous
Who teacheth by the pen, Teacheth man that which he knew
not. (Koran xcvi.1-5) Muhammad (pbuh) repeated these
verses, just as the Archangel had said them. When the
Archangel was sure Muhammad (pbuh) knew them by heart,
he we away. Now that he was alone Muhammad (pbuh) could
not understand what had happened to him. He was terribly
afraid and rushed out of the cave. Perhaps the cave was
haunted? Perhaps the devil had taken a hold of his mind? But
he was stopped by a voice from heaven which said; '0
Muhammad (pbuh) you are the Messenger of Allah, and I am
Gabriel.' He looked up at the sky and wherever he turned he
saw the Archangel Gabriel.
21 In a state of confusion he returned home to Khadijah. When
his wife saw him she became very worried as he began to
shiver, as though in a fever. He asked her to wrap him in
blankets, which she did. After a while he recovered sufficiently
to tell her what had happened at Hira'. Khadijah believed all
that he told her and with great respect said: 'Be happy, 0 son
of my uncle and be confident. Truly I swear by Allah who has
my soul in His hands, that you will be our people's Prophet.'
Muhammad (pbuh), the Messenger of Allah, was eased by her
faith in him, but after all that had happened he was exhausted
and felt fast asleep.
Khadijah left the Prophet (pbuh) sleeping and went to see
her cousin, Waraqah Ibn Nawfal, to ask him what he thought
about all that had happened. Waraqah was a very wise man
who had read many books and had become a Christian after
studying the Bible. He told Khadijah that Muhammad (pbuh)
had been chosen by Allah to be His Messenger. Just as the
Archangel Gabriel had come to Moses before and had ordered
him to guide his people, so, too, would Muhammad (pbuh) be
the Prophet of his people. But Waraqah warned that all the
people would not listen to the Prophet and some would
mistreat his followers. He must, however, be patient because
he had a great message for all the world. From that day on,
the Archangel Gabriel came often to the Prophet (pbuh) and
the verses he taught him, the message from Allah to man,
were later written down, and are known to us as the Holy
Koran
22The First Muslims
After that momentous day in the month of Ramadan,
Revelation came again and again to the Prophet (pbuh). He
understood now what he had to do and prepared himself for
what was to come. Only a strong and brave man, helped by
Allah, can be a true prophet because people often refuse to
listen to Allah's message. Khadijah was the first to believe the
Prophet (pbuh) and accept as true what he brought from Allah.
Through her, Allah made things easier for the Prophet (pbuh).
Khadijah strengthened him, helped him spread his message,
and stood up to the people who were against him.
Then Revelation ceased for a time. The Prophet (pbuh) was
upset and unhappy, thinking that Allah had left him, or that he
might have angered Allah in some way so that Allah no longer
thought him worthy of His message. However, the Archangel
Gabriel came back to him and brought this surah, or chapter,
of the Koran:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
“By the morning hours, And by the night when it is stillest,
Thy Lord hath neither forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee,
And verily the Last will be better for thee than the First. And
verily thy Lord will give unto thee so that thou wilt be content.
Did He not find thee an orphan and protect thee? Did He not
find thee wandering and guide thee? Did He not find thee
destitute and enrich thee? Therefore the orphan oppress not,
Therefore the beggar drive not away, And as for thy Lord's
blessing, declare it”. (Koran: xciii.1-11)
The Prophet (pbuh) began to speak secretly of Allah's
message to those Who were close to him and whom he could
trust. At that time Mecca was going through hard times. There
was very little food to be had. Abu Talib, the Prophet's uncle,
who had taken care of him after his grandfather's death, was
finding it very difficult to feed his large family.


23The Prophet (pbuh) said that he and another uncle, al-
'Abbas, who was a rich man, would each bring up one of Abu
Talib's children in order to help him. The Prophet (pbuh) took
‘Ali and his uncle took Ja’far.
One day, when the Prophet (pbuh) was outside the city, the
Archangel Gabriel appeared to him. The Archangel kicked the
side of a hill and a spring of water began to flow out. He then
began to wash himself in the running water to show the
Prophet (pbuh) the ritual ablution to be made before prayer.
Then the Archangel showed him all the positions of Muslim
prayer-the various movements and things to be said with each
movement. The Prophet (pbuh) returned home and taught all
these things first to Khadijah and then to his followers. Since
then Muslims have continued to purify themselves before
prayer by performing the ritual ablution and have followed the
same movements and prayers first performed by the Prophet
(pbuh). To begin with, though, only the Prophet (pbuh) and
his wife knew of these things. Then one day ‘Ali entered the
room and found the Prophet (pbuh) and Khadijah praying. He
was puzzled and asked what they were doing. The Prophet
(pbuh) explained to him that they were praising Allah and
giving thanks to Him. That night 'Ali stayed up thinking about
all that the Prophet (pbuh) had said; he had great admiration
and respect for his cousin. Finally he came to a decision and
the next day he went to the Prophet (pbuh) and told him that
he wanted to follow him. Thus Khadijah was the first woman to
embrace Islam, the teachings which the Prophet (pbuh)
brought from Allah, and ‘Ali was the first young man. Shortly
after they were joined by Zayd ibn Harithah, a slave, freed and
adopted by the Prophet (pbuh).
The Prophet (pbuh) began to leave Mecca with 'An in order
to pray. One day Abu Talib happened to pass by and when he
saw them he stopped and asked them what they were doing.
The Prophet (pbuh) told him that they were praying and
following the same religion as Abraham. He explained that,
like Abraham, he had been ordered to guide the people to
Allah's truth. Abu Talib looked at his son, 'Ali, and said:
'Muhammad (pbuh) would never make you do anything that
was wrong. Go with him.
24But I cannot leave the religion I now follow and which was
followed by my father.' Then he turned to the Prophet (pbuh),
saying, 'Even so, I promise you, Muhammad (pbuh), that no one
will hurt you as long as I am alive.' And with that Abu Talib went on
his way. At about this time the news of Muhammad (pbuh) being
the Prophet reached an honest, wise, and respected merchant of
Mecca called Abu Bakr. He knew Muhammad (pbuh) well and
believed he could never lie, so he went to find out for himself if the
story were true. The Prophet (pbuh) told him that he had indeed
been sent by Allah to teach everyone to worship the one true Allah.
On hearing this from the Prophet's own lips Abu Bakr knew it to be
the truth and became a believer instantly. Later the Prophet (pbuh)
was reported to have said that everyone he ever invited to accept
Islam showed signs of disbelief and doubt, except Abu Bakr; when
he was told of it he did not hold back or hesitate. Because of his
wisdom, honesty, and kindness people had always turned to Abu
Bakr for advice. He was, therefore, a man of some influence and
through him many people came to Islam. Among these was Sa'd ibn
Abi Waqqas as, the uncle of Aminah, the Prophet's mother. The
night before Abu Bakr came to visit him and tell him about Islam,
Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas dreamt that he was walking in darkness. As he
walked he saw the moon and when he looked at it he saw 'Ali, Abu
Bakr, and Zayd, the Prophet's freed slave, beckoning to him to
come and join them. When Abu Bakr told him about the Prophet's
religion, he understood the meaning of his dream and went at once
to the Prophet (pbuh) and declared himself a Muslim. He
understood that to be a Muslim means to submit oneself to Allah's
Will and to serve only Him. Another person brought to Islam by Abu
Bakr was Bilal. One night Abu Bakr went to the house of Umayyah
ibn Khalaf, one of the most important men of Quraysh. Umayyah
was out and Abu Bakr found only Umayyah's slave, Bilal, at home.
Abu Bakr talked to the slave about Islam and before he left, Bilal,
too, had become a Muslim. The number of people following the
Prophet (pbuh) began to grow. Sometimes they would all go out of
the city to the mountains around Mecca to hear him recite the
Koran and to be taught by him. This was all done very secretly and
only a very few people knew about Islam in those early days.
25The Troubles Begin
Three years passed and one day the Archangel Gabriel came
to the Prophet (pbuh) and ordered him to start preaching
openly to everyone. So the Prophet (pbuh) told the people of
Mecca that he had something very important to tell them. He
stood on a hillside in Mecca, called Safa, and they gathered
around to hear what he had to say. He started by asking them
if they would believe him were he to say that an army was
about to attack them. They answered that indeed they would,
because he never lied. He then told them that he was the
Messenger of Allah, sent to show them the right way, and to
warn them of terrible punishments if they did not follow him in
worshipping only Allah and none other. Abu Lahab, one of the
Prophet's uncles who was among the listeners, suddenly stood
up and said, 'May you perish! Did you call us here just to tell
us this?' At this, Allah sent to the Prophet (pbuh) the following
Surah:
In the Name of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful
“The Power of Abu Lahab will perish, and he will perish. His
wealth and gains will not save him. He shall roast at a flaming
fire, And his wife, the carrier of firewood Will have upon her
neck a rope of palm-fibre”. (Koran cxi.1-5)
Then the crowd dispersed and the Prophet (pbuh) was left
alone. A few days later the Prophet (pbuh) tried again. A feast
was prepared in his house for all of his uncles. After the meal
he spoke to them and said, 'O sons of 'Abd al-Muttalib! I know
of no Arab who has come to his people with a better message
than mine. I have brought you the best news for this life and
the next. Allah has ordered me to call you to Him. So which of
you will help me?' All the men kept silent. Then 'Ali, his cousin,
jumped up and said: 'O Prophet of Allah! I will help you.' Then
the men all got up and left, laughing as they went because
only one young boy had agreed to help the Prophet (pbuh).

26 His message ignored by most of the people and his uncles,
the Prophet (pbuh) continued to meet his friends secretly in a
house near the hill of Safa. There they prayed together and he
taught them about the religion of Islam. But even though they
kept to themselves, they were sometimes abused by those
who would not believe. From one such incident, however, an
unexpected conversion to Islam took place. One day, when the
Prophet (pbuh) was returning home, speaking with his
followers, he met Abu Jahl, a leader of Quraysh, who hated the
Prophet (pbuh) and his teachings. Abu Jahl started to insult
him and to speak spitefully of Islam, but the Prophet (pbuh)
made no reply and went on his way.
Later, Hamzah, one of the Prophet's uncles, who was a
strong and brave warrior of whom people were quite afraid,
heard how his nephew had been insulted. Filled with rage, he
ran straight to the Ka'bah where Abu Jahl was sitting among
the people and struck him a violent blow in the face with his
bow. Hamzah then shouted, 'Will you insult him when I follow
his religion, and I say what he says? Hit me back if you can!'
Some people got up to help Abu Jahl but he stopped them
saying, 'Leave Hamzah alone, for by Allah, I have insulted his
nephew badly. 'From that moment on Hamzah followed the
teachings of the Prophet (pbuh) and with his conversion to
Islam Quraysh realized that the Prophet (pbuh) had a strong
supporter and so for a while they stopped persecuting him.
Soon, however, the leaders of Quraysh became angry again,
when they saw that the Prophet (pbuh) was going ahead with
his teaching. A group of them went to his uncle, Abu Talib,
who had promised to protect him. They told him to ask the
Prophet (pbuh) to stop attacking their gods and their way of
life, and in return they would let him do as he wished with his
religion.


27 After a time they saw that there was no change, so they
went back to Abu Talib and this time they told him that if he
did not stop his nephew, they would fight them both. Abu Talib
was very upset by this quarrel among his people, but he could
not break his word to his nephew. He sent for the Prophet
(pbuh) and told him what had happened, saying, 'Spare me
and spare yourself; do not put a greater burden on me than I
can bear.' The Prophet (pbuh) thought that his uncle might
abandon him and that he would no longer have his support,
but nevertheless he answered, '0 my uncle, by Allah, if they
put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left in return
for my giving up this cause, I would not give it up until Allah
makes Truth victorious, or I die in His service. Abu Talib was
deeply moved by this answer. He told the Prophet (pbuh) that
he would support him for as long as he lived and encouraged
him to go on spreading Allah's message. From that time on,
however hard the leaders of Quraysh tried to convince Abu
Talib to stop protecting his nephew, he always refused to listen
to them. In order to get rid of the Prophet (pbuh) and his
followers, his enemies started persecuting those Muslims who
were poor or weak, or had no powerful friends. One such
person was Bilal, the slave of Umayyah ibn Khalaf. His master
would take him out into the desert, tie him up, and leave him
in the sun with a large stone on his chest. Fortunately Abu
Bakr was passing by one day and saw Umayyah torturing Bilal,
so he bought him from his master for a large sum of money
and then set him free. But not all persecuted Muslims were as
fortunate as Bilal. Many suffered, but all of them endured it
patiently, knowing that they were doing the right thing and
that their reward in the life to come would be greater' than
any happiness they could find on earth.
28The King Who Believed
As the number of the Prophet's followers increased so the
enemies of the Muslims grew more and more angry. At last
some of the Muslims decided to go to another country in order
to live in peace. It was only five years since the Archangel
Gabriel had first come to the Prophet (pbuh) and two years
since the Prophet (pbuh) had spoken out in public. The
Muslims asked the Prophet (pbuh) to allow them to leave
Mecca. He agreed, saying 'It would be better for you to go to
Abyssinia. The king there is a just man and it is a friendly
country. Stay there until Allah makes it possible for you to
return. The Muslims prepared for the journey. They decided to
wait until night so that they could leave without being seen.
The first sixteen left Mecca and, after reaching the shore of die
Red Sea, crossed over to Abyssinia. Another eighty-three men
and nineteen women followed, all hoping to be welcomed by
the king and people of that country. This was the first hijrah,
or migration, in Islam.
يتبع to be continued
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موضوع: (This is Muhammad(PBUH هذا هو محمد(ص)
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