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Mr.Abdelbadea M. Mahdy
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عدد المساهمات : 321
تاريخ التسجيل : 10/12/2010
الموقع : Egypt

مُساهمةموضوع: مراجعة الازمنة   الخميس 23 ديسمبر 2010, 11:09 pm



زمن المضارع البسيط

يتكون من مصدر الفعل بإضافةs مع الفاعل المفرد الغائب أو الضمائر (he, she, it )
 He works in a big firm.
مـلا حـظات:
يضاف للفعل es إذا كان الفعل ينتهي بالحروف ( ss – sh – ch – x – o )
 He watches TV. She crosses the road.

 يضاف للفعل ies إذا كان ينتهي بحرف y يسبقه حرف ساكن .
 She studies medicine he carries his bag.
 يضاف s فقط للأفعال التي تنتهي بحرف y يسبقه حرف متحرك.
 He plays the piano.
 She obeys her mother.
الاستخدام:
يعبر عن عاده متكررة ويستخدم مع الكلمات
(Always – usually – some times – often – ever – never – everyday – every week ---)
 I usually get up at 6 o'clock.
يعبر عن حقيقة ثابتة أو شبه ثابتة.
 The moon moves around the earth.
 I prefer reading to watching TV.
النفي:
نستخدم don't أمام الفعل إذا لم ينتهي ب ies, es, s.
 I don't work in a hospital.
 نستخدم doesn't إذا كان الفعل ينتهي ب ies, es, s
 He doesn't eat meat.
الاستفهام:
يتكون المضارع البسيط في الاستفهام من:
أداة الاستفـهام + do \ does + الفاعـل + الفعل( المصـدر) ?
 Where do you work?
 When does he come?
 تستخدم does مع الفاعل المفرد.
 تستخدم do مع الفاعل الجمع.








زمــــن الماضي البسيط
تكـوينه :
يتكون من التصريف الثاني للفعل وعاده باضا فه ed لمصدر الفعل ماعدا الأفعال الشاذة
 Dr Zewail discovered the femto second in 1997.
استعمالات زمن الماضي البسيط :
1- حدث تم وانتهي في الماضي
 I met Ahmed yesterday.
2- عاده في الماضي وانتهت ( لم تعد تحدث )
 When I was young, we lived in Cairo.
 When I was in Paris, I used to play tennis.

3- يستخدم في الحالة الثانية من قاعدة if
 If he studied hard, he would succeed.
4- يستخدم مع الكلمات التالية:
Yesterday – ago –– in the past – in the ancient times – in + تاريخ - last (week – month -)
5- يأتي بعد if only – I wish للتعبير عن أمنيه في الوقت الحاضر مطلوبة لكن غير محققة.
 I wish I saw Ahmed now.
 I wish I were a millionaire.
6- يأتي قبل أدوات الربط التالية
After , when , as soon as , until
7- غالبا ما تستخدم used toللتعبير عن عاده كانت في الماضي.
 When I was a child, I used to play in the street.
النفي :
نستخدم didn't ونحول الفعل الي المصدر .
 He didn't succeed in the exam.
الاستفهام :
يتكون الماضي البسيط في الاستفهام من :
اداه الاستفهام + did + الفاعل + المصدر ?
 How did you come to the club?
المبني للمجهول :
يتكون الماضي البسيط في المبني للمجهول من :
المفعول + was \ were + p . p.+ by + الفاعل
 The car was repaired by the mechanic.




1- I -------------------my dinner at eight o' clock everyday.
a- eats b- ate c - eat d- eaten
2- My brother------------------the newspaper every morning.
a- reads b- read c – has read d-is reading
3- The camera -------------------to take photographs.
a- is using b- is used c - uses d-used
4- The earth --------------------round the sun.
a- moved b- is moving c – is moved d- moves
5- Mr. Salim -------------------comes late.
a- don't b- doesn't c - never d- didn't
6- What time -------------------you usually go to work?
a- do b- does c - will d- are
7- I'll phone you as soon as I -------------------------my work.
a- will finish b- has finished c - finished d- finish
8- English ----------------------all over the world.
a- speaks b- spoken c – is spoken d- will speak
9- I --------------------------my aunt a week ago.
a- visited b- visit c - visiting d- would visit
10- We -----------------an interesting film last night.
a- watch b-watched c – have watched d- would watch
11- When I was on holiday, I --------------------tennis everyday.
a- play b- would play c - played d- have played
12- They -----------attend the conference last month.
a- won't b- didn't c – wasn't d- don't
13- They came to my birthday party and ---------------nice presents.
a- gives b- were giving c – have given d- gave
14- He ---------------------very quickly so we didn't understand.
a- has spoken b- speaks c – spoke d- would speak
15- When ---------------you go to bed last night?
a- did b-will c – do d- was
16- He came to my house and ------------------some tea with me.
a- have b- has c - had d- had had
17- During the holiday, tamer ----------------football every day.
a- played b- plays c – were playing d- has played
18- This house -------------------- two years ago.
a-built b- builds c – has built d- was built
19- When I was young, I ---------- eat a lot of chocolates.
a- use to b- used to c- am used to d- using to
20- A criminal ------- the guard of the bank last night.
a- killed b- has killed c- is killing d-kills
21- If only I ---------------------------in china today.
a- am b- was c- were d- be
22- It is time we ------------------- home.
a- go b- have gone c- went d- going
23- The western desert is one of the --------------------- places on earth.
a- dry b- drier c- driest d- warmest

Rewrite the following sentences:
1- A beaker is used to hold liquids. (holding)
2- He is experienced in computers. ( experience)
3- Can you direct me to the railway station/ ( direction)
4- His habit is to watch TV in the evening ( used to – usually)
5- He can do his work alone ( doing)
6- Who discovered America? ( discoverer)
7- The thieves planned to rob the bank. ( a plan)
8- The telescope enables astronomers to see the stars. ( able )
9- He usually goes to school on foot. ( going)
10- Noha never comes late. (doesn't)
11- When I was in Paris, I visited the Eiffel tower every day. ( used to)
12- Geologists study the earth to know its secrets. (The earth)
13- A microscope is used to examine very small things ( for)
14- With modern technology, we can increase production. ( enables)
15- Naguib Mahfouz won the Noble prize. (The Noble prize)
16- A chair is used for sitting. (to)



زمــــن المضارع المستمر

تكـوينه
يتكون من + am,is,are + v + ing الفاعل
استعمالات زمن المضارع المستمر :
1- حدث يحدث الان – مستمر اثناء الكلام .
Now, he is writing a report.
At the moment she is ironing the shirts.
2- حدث في المستقبل تم التخطيط لة من قبل .
We are traveling tomorrow.
Every thing is arranged. Tim marrying next Thursday.
علاماته :
Now, look, listen, at present, at the moment, be careful, and look out.
النفي:
He is repairing the car. "Negative"
He isn't repairing the car.
الفاعل + am,is,are + not +v+ing.
الاستفهام :
Is , Are + الفاعل + v + ing --------------?
Are you buying a new shirt ?
Yes , I'm buying a new shirt.
المبني للمجهول :
يتكون المضارع المستمر في المبني للمجهول من :
المفعول + am , is , are + being + p.p .
The government is building many cities in the desert. " Many cities"
Many cities are being built in the desert .
5- لا تستعمل ازمنه المستمر مع الأفعال الآتية :
See – hear – smell – notice أفعال الشعور – الحواس
Realize- know – understand – suppose – mean – forget – remember – trust
أفعال التفكير
Want – desire – wish – hate – like – love – dislike – care أفعال العاطفة
Own – possess – belong – have أفعال الملكية

The past continuous tense زمن الماضي المستمر

يتكون من : was , were + v + ing
استخدامه :
1- للتعبير عن حدث استمر لفترة في الماضي .
 At 10 o, clock yesterday, I was sleeping.
2- للتعبير عن حدث استمر في الماضي عندما قطعه حدث آخر ويستخدم مع :

While - as - just as

3- يأتي بعدها ماضي مستمر والحدث الآخر يكون ماضي بسيط.
 While I was studying, the light went out.

When

4- يأتي بعدها ماضي بسيط والحدث الآخر يكون ماضي مستمر
 When the light went out, I was studying.


1- at the time my father arrived, we ------------ chess.
a- played b-were played c- were playing d- had played
2- I ---------- a bath when the phone rang.
a- had b- was having c- having d- have had
3- When I got to the car, I realized that I --------- my keys.
a- am losing b- would lose c- had lost d- was losing
4- while ------------ in the street, I ran into an old friend.
a- walk b- walking c- was walking d- walked
5- When I was young, I ---------- eat a lot of chocolates.
a- using to b- am used to c- used to d- had used to
6- the manager---------------------------------the report now.
a- reads b- reading c- is reading d- is read
7- my new computer -------------------------now.
a- is delivered b- delivers c- is delivering d- is being delivered
8- listen , she ------------------------------- a beautiful song.
a- is singing b- sings c- is being d- is sung
9- I borrowed his car while mine ---------------------------------------.
a- was repairing b- was being repaired c- repairs d- is repairing
10- look, the boy--------------------------------the tree.
a- is climbed b- is climbing c- climbing d-climbs
Rewrite the following sentences:
1- the is producing many products. ( being)
2- while he was reading the paper, his son arrived. ( when)
3- the dishes was being washed when we finished studying ( being)
4- During his sleep, his money was stolen. (While)
5- he was playing tennis and he fell down suddenly. (When)
6- we have decided to buy a new car ( buying)
8- during his work , he made many mistakes. ( while)
9- As we listening to music, we heard a loud noise. ( during)
10- I'm making a new plan to invest my money. ( made)




أزمنه المستقبل

Future simple
تكوينه :
Will + المـصــدر
 He will come tomorrow.
النفي:
الفاعل + will not + المصــــدر
 He won't come tomorrow.
الاستفهام :
اداة الاستفهــام + will \ shall + الفاعـــل + المصــــدر
 When will he come?
استخدامه
 يستخدم للتعبير عن شيء سوف يحدث في المستقبل .
ويستخدم مع الكلمات الاتيه :
Tomorrow , next , in the future , soon , in + تاريخ في المستقبل
 I will give a party next Friday.  We will live on the moon in the future
تستخدم will للتعبير عن ما ياتي:
1- للتعبير عن حقيقه في المستقبل .
 He will be forty next week.
2- للتبؤ باحداث في المستقبل .
 He will get the first prize.
3- لاتخاذ قرار سريع .
 I'll have some coffee, please.
4- في الطلب او العرض.
 Will you open the door for me, please?
 I'll post the letter for you.
5- لعمل ترتيبات.
 We will see you at the party tomorrow.
6- لعمل وعود او تهديد .
 I'll buy you a mobile phone if you succeed.
 I'll resign if I don't get a pay rise.
تستخدم shall مع الضميرينI, we) ) فقط للتعبير عن ما ياتي:
1- لعمل اقتراحات .
 Shall we go for a walk?
2- لتقديم عروض
 Shall I carry the bag for you?
Going to
تستخدم going to للتعبير عن ما ياتي :
1- للتعبير عن نيه تم التخطيط لها قبل لحظه الكلام .
 He is turning the radio; he is going to listen to the news.
2- للتنبؤ بشيء في المستقبل يوجد عليه دليل.
 The sky is cloudy; I think it's going to rain.

النفي:
الفاعل + am,is,are not going to + المصدر
 He isn't going to travel to London next week.
الاستفهام :
اداه الاستفهام + am,is,are + الفاعل going to + المصدر ?
 When is he going to visit us?


Choose the correct answer:
1- He hasn't studied hard. I think he-------------------this exam.
a- will fail b- fails c – is going to fail d- failed
2- You -------------------it if you aren't careful.
a- are breaking b-will break c – have broken d- are going to break
3- My brother -----------------twenty next week.
a- will be b- is being c – is going to be d- is
4- The sky is cloudy, I think it-----------------------------------.
a- is going to rain b- has rained c – will rain d- would rain
5- The ceiling of the room doesn't look very safe, it ------------------------------------.
a- will fail b- is failing c – is going to fail d- falls
6- I'm------------------my uncle at the airport at six o'clock.
a- going to meet b- am meeting c – will meet d- meet
7- What will you -------------------tomorrow?
a- do b- doing c – are doing d- going to do
8- If you play well, you----------------------the match.
a- is going to win b-win c – will win d- would win
9- He -----------------------to London next week, he has booked the tickets.
a- traveling b- is traveling c – will travel d- travels
10- He is filling the bucket with water. He -----------------------------the car.
a- will wash b- washes c- has washed d- is going to wash
11- We are saving up because we ---------------------------buy a car.
a- will b- are being c – are going to d- would
12- You -------------punished if you make that mistake again.
a- will be b- is being c – is going to be d- is
13- I------------------work in an hour. I have arranged it with my boss.
a- will leave b- am leave c – will d- am going to leave

Rewrite the following sentences:
1- I'm going to decorate my room. (decided)
2- "I'll cut the electric current if you don't pay the bill." ( he threatened)
3- He planned to start anew business. ( going to)
4- We have arranged to hold a meeting tomorrow. ( we are)
5- I've arranged to give my wedding party next week. (I'm)
6- Her aim in life is to become an engineer. ( will)
7- I plan to build the second floor next week. (going)
8- I don't intend to do this work again. (going)
9- He said" shall I post the letter for you" (offered)
10- father said" I'll buy you a computer if you succeed" (promised)





زمــــن المضــــــــــارع الـتــام

يتــكـــون مــــن: Have, has + p.p

 I have just written the report.  She has already cleaned the house.
 استخدامه:
1- يعبر عن حدث بدا وانتهي في الماضي لكن أثره في الحاضر:
 I have lost my key. (I can't open the door)
 He has just arrived حدث انتهي منذ فتره قصيرة

2- يعبر عن حدث بدا في الماضي وما زال مستمر حتى ألان.
 I have lived in Tanta for 20 years = I still live in Tanta
لكن لاحظ  I lived in Tanta for 20 years = I live somewhere else now.

3- نستخدم lately – recently لنقصد أن شيئا ما قد حدث منذ وقت قريب لكن لم يحدد الزمن.
 I haven't seen her lately.
4- تستخدم just – already في الإثبات وتستخدم yet في النفي والاستفهام.
 I have already phoned the doctor.
 I haven't phoned the doctor yet.
 Have you yet finished your homework?
5--تستخدم (ever ) في السؤال عن خبره الشخص و (never) في النفي.
 Have you ever been to Paris?
 No, I have never been to Paris
6- علاماته
Since منذ Already بالفعل Up till now حتى الآن
For منذ Just حالا Ever سبق أبدا
Lately حديثا Yet ليس بعد Never أبدا (لا)
recently مؤخرا So far حتى ألان

 Has, have been to + مكان ذهب إلي مكان وعاد منه
 He has been to London (now he is in Egypt)
 Has, have gone to + مكان ذهب إلي مكان وما زال هناك
He has gone to Italy (he is still there)




الفــــرق بــــين

 Since نقطه بداية الحدث  for مده الحدث - الفترة
 إذا جاء مع since فعل واحد نضعه في زمن المضارع التام.
 She has learned English since 1995.

إذا جاء مع since فعلان نضع قبلها زمن المضارع التام وبعدها زمن الماضي البسيط.

+ مضارع تام since + ماضي بسيط

 She has been in bed since she arrived home.
 He has been studying since he returned from school.
 لاحظ الجدول الأتي:
Since For
Since 7 o'clock For 2 hours
Since 2000 For 5 years
Since yesterday For a day - one day
Since last night For a night - the last night
Since April For 2 months
Since Friday For five days
Since then For ages , along time
Since spring For a season
Since his arrival For years – a while
 ملاحظات :

1- إذا طلب استخدام since بدلا من when نستخدم زمن المضارع التام منفي :
 I last saw her when she was a child. (Since)
 I haven't seen her since she was a child.

2- إذا طلب استخدام ago بدلا من for نستخدم الفعل began to قبل المصدر من الفعل الأصلي :
 She has played tennis for five years.
 She began to play tennis five years ago.

3- إذا طلب استخدام just بدلا من a moment ago نستخدم المضارع التام :
 She left home a moment ago.
 She has just left home.
4- إذا طلب استخدام since بدلا من for نتبع الطريقة الاتيه :
 He has worked as a teacher for 5 years.
 He has worked as a teacher since 2000.
 Its 5 years since he worked as a teacher.
5- استخدام for بدلا من ago
 The last time I met her was 2 months ago
 I haven't seen her for 2 months.



زمــــن المضـــــارع التام المســـــتمر

يتكون من
 Have been + v. ing  Has been + v. ing

 He has been sleeping since he arrived.
 It has been raining for 2 hours.
- يؤكد هذا الزمن استمرار الحدث حتى الآن وقد يستمر في المستقبل
علاماته:

For----------now Since --------------still
For ---------still All + فتره زمنيه
So far ------now فاعل hasn't stopped – finished yet

 She has been doing the housework since 7.30 and she hasn't finished yet.
 He (study – studied – has been studying – has studied) English for 2 years now.
- لو حدد عدد المرات نستخدم المضارع التام البسيط وليس المستمر
 He has (written – been writing) 6 reports since last night.
- يستخدم المضارع التام المستمر مع الأفعال التي تستغرق وقت طويلا.
Travel – work – wait – live – stay – sleep – learn - ---------------
- لا يستخدم مع أفعال الحواس والإدراك والشعور والعاطفة.
Believe – forget – hate – know – like – mean – understand – seem – prefer – own---
ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
Choose the correct answer:
1- I -------------my home work yet
a- have met b- have met c- didn't meet d- will not meat
2- I --------------this secret for a week now.
a-have known b- have been knowing c- had known d- will know
3- Noha has ----------------drunk coffee.
a- ago b- since c- ever d- just
4- Shoes and bags are made ------------------leather.
a- in b- of c- of
d-with
5- Many improvements -------------------in Egypt since 1952.
a- have made b- have been making c- have been made d-had been made
6- He -----------------in hospital since he was ill.
a- had stayed b- stayed c- has stayed d- stays
7- Have you----------------- seen a beautiful garden like this?
a- never b- already c- since d- ever
8- It ----------------------- all day. It hasn't stopped yet.
a- has rained b- has been rained c- had been raining d-has been raining
9- I have been learning English -------------------------------10 years now.
a- for b- ago c- since d-yet
10- He graduated from the faculty of engineering -------------2005.
a- for b- since c- in d-on
11- She ----------------------for seven hours now.
a- has slept b- have slept c- has been slept d-has been sleeping
12- The last time I ---------------Hosam was two years ago.
a- met b- have met c- meet d- will meat
13- This is the most exciting story I -------------------.
a- read b- have read c- am reading d- had read
14- We have been living in Tanta --------------we returned from Saudi Arabia.
a- since b- for c- ago d- when
15- He is away, I don't know where he -----------------------.
a- was gone b- has gone to c- has been to d- is going
16- Have you ever ------------------to the pyramids?
a- visited b- been visited c- been d- been visiting
17- He has worked as a taxi driver ---------------5years.
a- since b- for c- ago d- to
18- Mona hasn't seen her mother ---------------------last Friday morning.
a- for b- since c- ago d- from
Rewrite the following
1- He finished his work a moment ago. (just)
2-I went to Alexandria and came back. (have)
3- It's along time since we he wrote to me. (for)
4- He has gone to London since 1995. (for)
5- We last phoned him when he was in the hospital. (haven't)
6- My uncle phoned us a moment ago. (just)
7- It hasn't rained her for years. (The last time)
8- Its five years since I had a car. (for)
9- I haven't met him for two months. (since)
10- It is still raining. (not yet)
11- He has traveled to London and came back. (has been)
12- The last time I visited my village was two years ago. (since)
13-Up till now, no one has beaten him at chess. (never)
14-He is still answering the test. (finished)
15- It's two months since I last ate fish. (haven't)






زمـــــن الــمــــاضــــي الـتــــام

تكوينه :

استخدامه
إذا وقع حدثان في الماضي فان الحدث الذي تم أولا يكون زمنه ماضي تام والحدث الذي تم ثانيا يكون زمنه ماضي بسيط .

After

As soon as + فاعل + ماضي تام , فاعل + ماضي بسيط
When



 First, he watched the film, and then he went to bed. (After)
 After he had watched the film, he went to bed.


Till
مــاضـي بسيــط مـنفـي + فــاعـــل + فــاعــل مـاضـي تــام
) didn’t + المصدر (Until (had + P.P)


 He didn’t go home until he had watched TV.


no sooner + p.p -----than
فاعل + had hardly + p.p ------when فاعل + ماضي بسيط
Scarcely + p.p ------when


 He had no sooner watched TV than he went to bed.
ملحوظة :
إذا بدأت الجملة بإحدى هذه الكلمات , تأتى الجملة بعدها علي هيئه استفهام :-

No sooner than
Hardly + had فاعل + + p.p when فاعل + ماضي بسيط
Scarcely when


 Hardly had he watched TV when he went to bed.


فــاعــل + ماضي تــام before فــاعــل + مــاضــي بسيـــط
فــاعــل + ماضي تــام by the time فــاعــل + مــاضــي بسيـــط


 First, he made a plan. Then he robbed the bank.
 He had made a plan before he robbed the bank.
ملاحظات :
1- إذا حذفنا الفاعل بعد after , before نستخدم ( v + ing ) أو ( noun ) بعد الرابط
 After making a plan, he robbed the bank.
 Before lunch, we had watched TV.
2- يمكن حذف after ونستخدم

Having + p.p , فــاعــل + مـــاضــي بـسيــطـ

 Having watched TV, I went to bed .
3- جميع الروابط الزمنية إذا آتي قبلها مستقبل بسيط يأتي بعدها مضارع بسيط آو مضارع تام
 I will make a plan before I begin the project.

Choose the correct answer:
1-He didn’t receive my letter I ----------- to him two days ago.
a- had sent b- have sent c- would sent d- sent
2- By the time the police ------------, the thief had escaped
a- arrive b- had arrived c- have arrived d- arrived
3- After -------- a new house, he will marry.
a- set up b- had set up c- have set
d- setting up
4- Having ---------- the letter, I posted it.
a- write b- wrote c- writing d- written
5- Before he passed the exam, Ali ------------- hard.
a- studied b- had studied c- have studied d- studies
6- I didn’t answer the question ------------ I had read the question paper.
a- until b- after c- when d- before
7- As soon as he ---------- at the airport, he telephoned me.
a- arrived b- had arrived c- arriving d- arrives
8- No sooner ----------- the letter than he posted it.
a - he wrote b- has he written c- he had written d - had he written
9- He -------- find a job until he had graduated.
a- won’t b- doesn’t c- didn’t d- couldn’t
10- He ------ no sooner finished his work than he went to the club.
a- had b- did c- has d- was
11- He missed the bus because he ------------ late.
a- had got up b- gets c- has got up d- got up
12-he didn’t remember the promise he -----------
a- took b- has taken c- takes d- had taken
13- As soon as I ---------- the ticket, I ran to catch the bus.
a- bough b- had bought c- have bought d- was buying
14-He ------------me his book yesterday.
a- gave b- gives c- had given d- will give
15- The patient ---------------before the doctor came.
a- died b- dies c- had died d- has died
16- As soon as he had arrived in London he -----------------me.
a- has phoned b- phones c- had phoned d- phoned
17- She --------------------a teacher before she became a guide.
a- has been b- had been c- was being d- is
18- By the time he was five, he ---------------------to write.
a- learnt b- learns c- had learnt d- would learn
19- My father didn't remember the promise ----------------------------.
a- had made b- made c- makes d- has made
20- She --------------her lunch until her husband had come.
a- had had b- won't have c- wasn't have d-didn't have
21- after the report ----------------, I handed it to the manager.
a-had finished b- had been finished c- has been finished d-finished
22- Having graduated, he ------------------abroad.
a- traveled b- had traveled c- has traveled d- travels
23- After --------------my work, I went home.
a-had finished b- finished c- finishing d- being finished
24- They said that the driver ----------------------the accident.
a-had cause b-was caused c- had caused d-has caused
25- I took the medicine when I --------------------- a meal.
a- has had b- have had c- had d- had had

Rewrite the following sentences:
1- He was punished for not paying the fine (because)
2- He left the place when his friend came. (Until)
3- Having visited his uncle, he went shopping. (After)
4- I didn’t know about her success until I had met her (after)
5-She didn’t marry till she had graduated. (When)
6- After I had studied, I went to bed. (Till)
7- He felt ill from eating too much caned food, (By the time)
8- She wrote a postcard then she went to the post office. (Before)
9-I had my breakfast, but before that, I took some exercise (I didn’t)
10 - Why don’t you phone Dalia? (How)
11 - Akram borrowed a tennis racket from Fawzi. (Lent)
12 - He didn’t leave without talking the money. (Until)
13- They weren't eager to work until they had had a holiday. (After)
14- He left the room after taking permission. (before)
15- We went for a walk but first we finished our work. (Having)
16- You were cold because you didn't wear a coat. (If)
17- We didn't visit the museum as we hadn't time. (If)
18- Without doctors' efforts, many patients would have died. (unless)
19- I didn't know the good news as I was abroad. (If)
20- If I had known you were a sleep, I wouldn't have played the piano. (I didn't)
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